The property of a porous material, such as paper, which causes it to take up liquids with which it is in contact.
Standard lithographic color inks tested and approved by naa for process and spot color reproduction.
- basis weight
The number of pounds per ream of paper of a stated size. The weight of 500 sheets of 24 x 36 paper for newsprint (other paper types vary in basis size). The standard basis weight of newsprint is typically 28 to 30 pounds.
A sheet of rubber reinforced with fabric that is used on an offset press to transfer the image from the plate to the paper.
Printed colors that run all the way to the edge of a page. To accommodate the bleed, the printer must make the bleed area larger than the final trim size. The page is then trimmed right through the bleed area. This cannot be done on a normal newspaper run but can be done using commercial coldset press equipment.
Sometimes called a vignette or degrade, a blend is a halftone image tint in which the background or a portion of the illustration gradually shades off until the lightest tones or extreme edges appear to merge either with a second blend printed using a different color or with the paper on which the one-color is printed.
According to the GATF Encyclopedia of Graphic Communications, brightness in printing refers to the amount of lightness or darkness in the printed image, described apart from the hue and saturation of that image. In papermaking, brightness is an optical property of paper that describes its reflectance of blue light, typically at a wavelength of 457 nanometers, which is the wavelength at which the yellowing of paper is most easily gauged.
A full-sized newspaper page. It has no standard dimensions but is between 12 to 16 inches wide by about two feet long. The actual size depends on the size of the web used and the cutoff of the printing press. In commercial printing, the broadsheet product is sometimes referred to as a ”Standard.”
- center spread
The only 2 page spread that is printed on the same sheet of paper, normally found in the center of the publication. In some catalogs the centerspread is "off" center. This occurs if catalogs sections are printed as 12, 20, or 28 page sections.
- coldset printing
Printing process sometimes referred to as non-heatset and open web that prints only on uncoated papers and typically on uncoated groundwood sheets such as newsprint, using ink systems that rely primarily on absorption and to a lesser degree oxidation first to set and then to dry.
- color bars
printed tonal scales of the process colors used to monitor ink density, dot gain/tone value increase, and other print characteristics on proofs and printed sheets.
- color management system (CMS)
CMS refers to a software program that compensates for the different color characteristics of input devices such as scanners and digital cameras and output devices such as imagesetters, digital proofers, and printing presses.
- content proof
Sometimes called a position proof. It is a color or black and white image, either hard copy or softcopy, used to verify the content of the film or file.
- continuous tone (CT)
According to the GATF Encyclopaedia of Graphic Communications, continuous tone, sometimes referred to as contone, is essentially a photographic image that is not composed of halftone dots. Examples include photographs, transparencies, and digital proofs that do not employ halftones, such as xerographic, dye transfer, and ink jet proofing systems. The term continuous tone also refers to a digital image that has been scanned prior to being screened into halftone dots. Continuous tone also refers to a bitmap file of a scanned image.
The difference of tonal graduation between the light and dark areas within an image.
A method of measuring density, dot gain/tone value increase, and other characteristics. Densitometers are the name of the device used to measure the transmission or reflectance of specific colored light through or from transparent or reflective copy samples.
The light-absorbing property of a material, expressed as the logarithm of the reciprocal of the reflectance or transmittance factor; higher density indicates more light is absorbed.
The area of maximum density (darkest area) of a reflection or transmission photographic material.
The area of minimum density (lightest area) of a reflection or transmission photographic material.
- dot area (apparent) / tone value
More accurately referred to as Apparent Dot Gain/TVI. When measured objectively using a reflection densitometer or similar device, it refers to the size of the halftone dot, including mechanical plus optical components, that is imaged or reproduced on opaque materials. The Apparent Dot Area/Tone Value minus the halftone dot on the film or specified in the file equals Dot Gain/Tone Value Increase.
- dot gain curve
The name for a graph illustrating dot gain values reproduced from highlight and quartertones values through midtones and three-quartertone values and including solids by an imaging device, including a digital or analog proofing system or a printing press.
- dot gain/tone value increase (TVI)
An attribute of printing wherein the halftone dot size increases through successive stages of the reproductive process. Total Dot Gain, sometimes called Apparent Dot Gain, describes the combined effects of both the mechanical and optical increases in tonal rendition. It represents the difference between the halftone dot on the film or specified in the file and the appearance of that halftone dot on the piece being measured. As the industry embraces digital workflows and digital imaging methods that do not employ halftones, the term tone value increase is being recognized as the more inclusive term to describe this phenomenon.
- dots per inch (DPI)
Dots Per Inch (dpi), sometimes referred to as spots per inch (spi), is a measure of the resolution of the printer, imagesetter, platesetter, or other output device.
The change in the print density from the time of printing as the ink is absorbed into the sheet of paper. densities typically decrease in value as dryback occurs.
Encapsulated PostScript is a file format developed by Adobe Systems Inc. According to the GATF Encyclopedia of Graphic Communications, the EPS format provides an output device-independent PostScript representation of page, graphic element, or other object. In addition to including a low-resolution bitmap file of the page or image to permit quick on-screen viewing, EPS files are able to image smooth lines and curves at the output resolution called for using the output device.
- file compression
According to the gatf encyclopedia of graphic communications, file compression, in computing, refers to a means for reducing the size of a file so that it occupies less space when stored or takes less time when transmitted.
- file transmission
Sending, or transmitting, a digital file from one computer to another computer using copper or fiber optic land-based lines, satellites, and other means.
- final proof
A color or black and white image, either hard-copy or soft-copy, used to predict the final job on press.
- for position only (FPO)
For Position Only refers to physical or electronic images included on a hard copy or electronic mechanical to indicate only the position of the final artwork or scan and which are not intended to print. When employed, they are placeholders in the page or on the file for high-resolution images or alternate text, graphics, or pictures.
According to the GATF Encyclopedia of Graphic Communications, gamut, sometimes referred to as the color gamut, is the range of colors that can be reproduced with a specified set of inks or other colorants on a specified paper or substrate while using a designated printing press or other imaging device.
general requirements for applications in commercial offset lithography
The weight in grams of a single sheet of paper with an area of one square meter.
- gray balance
The relationship of cyan, magenta, and yellow inks required to reproduce a neutral gray scale within a given printing system.
- gray component replacement (GCR)
An electronic color scanning capability in which the least dominant process color is replaced with an appropriate value of black in process work. Any color which is reproduced using all three chromatic process inks may be thought of as having a neutral component. This is defined by the lowest tone value and its gray balance equivalents of the other two inks. It is possible to replace all or some of the neutral component by black ink. GCR and UCR (Under Color Removal) are two techniques for achieving this. UCR is limited to near-neutral colors only, whereas GCR generally provides no such limit.
- gray scale
A strip of standard gray tones, ranging from white to black. In the case of color-separation negatives for determining color balance or uniformity of the separation negatives.
The inside margin of a newspaper. on the plate cylinder, the space between the head and toe of the plate or plates. on a tabloid plate, the space grooved for the inside margin, the center fold, of the paper.
An image having a tone pattern composed of round, square, elliptical, or a combination of dots of uniform density but varying in size.
- hard copy
A physical document of the image on some substrate.
- heatset printing
heatset is a printing process in which ink is dried rapidly in high energy printing process that prints primarily on coated glossy papers, using ink systems that rely on high energy gas fired ovens or uv lights to rapidly set and cure the ink.
The lightest tonal areas in a halftone or color separation film and reproduction. highlights encompass halftone values ranging from 1% to 15% dots.
one of the three attributes of color, the others being saturation and brightness. hue is determined by the color's dominant wavelength in the visible color spectrum.
- hue error
hue error indicates a deviation from a theoretically perfect process hue.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies from over 100 countries. Its mission is to promote the development of standardization and related activities in the world with a view to facilitating the international exchange of goods and services, and to developing cooperation in the spheres of intellectual, scientific, technological, and economic activity. The ISO Technical Committee responsible for the graphic arts is TC 130.
In printing, a unit of measure used to describe the color temperature of a light source, such as the 5000 degrees k standard viewing condition.
- line copy
According to the gatf encyclopedia of graphic communication, line copy, sometimes referred to as line art, is text or artwork containing no tonal values, or shades of gray, and which can be imaged or printing without the need for halftone screens.
- lines per inch (LPI)
lines per inch (lpi)is a measure of the frequency of the halftone screen used to print an image.
- live area
Sometimes referred to by commercial printers as finished page size.
Tasks such as installing the web through the press, changing or washing blankets, hanging plates, achieving proper densities, and registering completed colors to the printing press prior to printing salable copies for a job.
The middle tonal areas in a halftone or color separation film and reproduction. midtones encompass halftone values ranging from 40% to 60% dots.
Undesirable patterns occurring when reproductions are made from halftone proofs or steel engravings. These are caused by conflict between the ruling of the halftone screen and the dots or lines of the originals and usually are due either to incorrect screen angles or to misregister of the color impressions during printing.
The measure of the amount of light which will not pass through a substrate or ink.
Portable Document Format, or pdf, is an updated page description software published by Adobe Systems Incorporated, the software company that created postscript™.
Each pica measure is broken down to 12 points per pica.
Pixels Per Inch in a digital file. each pixel represents the smallest tonal element in a digital imaging system.
- print contrast
A method of evaluating and optimizing the density of the ink deposited on the substrate during printing. The ink strength--or print contrast--is determined to take into account the solid ink density, the density of the ink in shadow areas of the image, and the dot gain. Print contrast is calculated by measuring the ink density of a solid area and the ink density in a 75% tint.
- print density
The light absorbing ability of the printed image or base material.
In imaging and photography, the portions of an image (such as a photograph) with tonal values between those of highlights and middletones, containing halftone dot sizes of approximately 25% dot area.
- raster image processor (RIP)
A device which converts an image into a bit-map suitable for digital printing (computer-to-print). The electronic bit-map indicates every spot position on a page in preparation for an actual printout.
Exact correspondence in the position of individual separations/plates in color printing.
- register marks
Small crosses, guides, or patterns placed on the originals before reproduction to facilitate registration of plates and their respective printing.
The capability of making distinguishable the individual parts of an alphanumeric or other image.
- screen angle
Any of the particular angles at which a halftone screen or the original itself is placed for each of the color separation negatives, in order to prevent formation of interference patterns (moiré’) in the completed color reproduction. Angles of 30o between colors produce minimum patterns.
- screen ruling
In halftone photography, the number of lines of dots per inch on a halftone screen. each line (or row) and each column contain a certain number of dots at a particular density.
Sometimes referred to as Color Separation. (1) In color photography, the isolation or division of the colors of an original into their primary hues, with each record or negative used for the production of a color plate. (2) The act of manually separating or introducing colors in printing plates. In lithography, direct separations are made with the use of the halftone screen; indirect separations involve continuous-tone separation negatives and screened positives made from these.
"Sheet-Fed" refers to individual sheets of paper being fed into a press. Sheet-fed printing is commonly used for short-run magazines, brochures, and general commercial printing.
Specifications for newsprint advertising production. Snap outlines pre-press and printing specifications for coldset offset, letterpress, and flexographic printing on uncoated groundwood sheets (newsprint).
- soft copy
A screen presentation of the image on a display monitor.
- solid ink density (SID)
In imaging and color, the perceived darkness of a substance, material, or image caused by the absorption or reflection of light impinging on the material.
A precise statement of a set of requirements to be satisfied by a material, product, system, or service that indicates the procedures for determining whether each of the requirements is satisfied.
- spot color
Spot color is a single color added to the printed page. Since converting our presses to full color, all color is now printed cmyk.
A printed product sometimes referred to as a broadsheet, it is a common printed product format used by commercial coldset printers, typically having a 21" height and 10" to 15" width.
A type of digital halftone screening that varies the pattern of dots while keeping the size of the dots constant.
Specifications for web offset publications. Swop outlines pre-press and printing specifications for heatset web offset and gravure printing on coated groundwood no. 5 paper.
A newspaper or commercial product with a page size one half or less the broadsheet/standard page size of the press, about 1/2 of the size of the standard newspaper page size.
- tagged image file format (TIFF)
In computer graphics, TIFF is the most commonly used file format for saving and transporting bitmap images. Essentially, TIFF saves an image with little information beyond the values of the pixels contained in the image, and a header (or tag) describing the output size and the resolution of the image.
In imaging and photography, the portions of an image (such as a photograph) with tonal values between those of middletones and shadows, containing halftone dot sizes of approximately 75% dot area.
- tonal range
Alternate term for density range, or the gamut of tones in an original or reproduced image. Density range: expressed as the difference between the area of maximum density (the darkest portions of an image) and the minimum density (the lightest tones).
- tone value
The percentage of an area on a film or print or in a digital file to be covered by colorant. Also known as apparent dot area.
- tone value increase (TVI) / dot gain
difference between the tone value on a print and the corresponding value on a halftone film or in a digital file. Also known as dot gain.
- tone value sum
The sum of the tone values on all the color separations in the darkest area of an image. Also know as total area coverage.
- total area coverage (TAC)
The sum of the tone values on all the color separations in the darkest area of an image.
- trap (apparent)
The ability of a printed ink film to accept the next ink printed on top of the first.
- trap (image)
In multicolor printing, an allowance of overlap for two colors printed adjacent to each other as a means of compensating for misregister and to avoid gaps between colors.
- trap (ink)
The action of printing an ink film on top of another ink film.
- undercolor removal (UCR)
A form of process color reduction that decreases the dot sizes of the cyan, magenta, and yellow inks in the neutral shadow areas and compensates by increasing the dot size of the black printer. See gcr.
- UV response
Descriptive of the sensitivity of photographic films or other photosensitive materials to ultraviolet light.
(1) A small decorative design or illustration of any kind on or just before the title page, or at the beginning or end of a chapter of a manuscript or book. (2) An original piece of copy. (3) Halftone printing plate of impression in which the background or a portion of the illustration gradually shades off until the lightest tones or extreme edges appear to merge with the paper on which they are printed. Also known as Fade Away.
Web-fed refers to the use of rolls (webs) of paper supplied to the printing press. Typical examples of web printing include newspapers, newspaper inserts/ads, magazines, catalogs, and books